Salvage Logging

Large natural disturbances often produce high-quality early seral ecosystems provided they are not intensively salvaged and replanted. —Jerry F. Franklin and K. Norman Johnson, 2012 in Journal of Forestry

Salvage logging, or post-fire logging, is a long practiced yet scientifically unsupported method of forest management. Often cited as a necessary management tool for aiding in forest restoration following a wildfire, salvage logging can actually accomplish the opposite result by increasing the fire hazard, degrading water quality, and impairing the habitat and ecological function of the forest.

Salvage Logging Increases the Fire Risk

Fred's Salvage The Forest Service and private timber companies often advocate on behalf of “salvaging” dead and dying standing trees for their commodity value following a wildfire event. Post-fire logging extracts these merchantable burned trees and leaves behind the smallest trees which happen to have little commercial value and increase the fire danger. Salvage logging increases the fire risk by adding materials such as tree tops, limbs, needles, and other by-products of these massive logging operations to the forest floor, thus increasing the available fuel for ignition by the next fire.

Post-fire and post-disturbance logging may increase the reburn potential of a forest by concentrating flammable slash, such as small branches, near the ground. The largest, most fire-resistant snags and tree trunks, which provide perching, nesting and feeding sites for wildlife, are removed by post-fire logging.

Impacts of Wildlife and Ecological Processes

SalvagePost-fire logging also disrupts natural ecological processes, threatens the habitat of wildlife species, and reduces water quality. Post-fire logging hinders forest regeneration and restoration by compacting soils, damaging riparian corridors, introducing and spreading invasive species, causing erosion, adding sediment to streams, degrading water quality, and removing trees utilized for habitat.

In testimony before the House Subcommittee on Resources (November 10, 2005), eminent forest ecologist and University of Washington Professor Jerry Franklin noted that logging dead trees often has greater negative impacts than logging of live trees. He concluded that “timber salvage is most appropriately viewed as a ‘tax’ on ecological recovery.” A full discussion of the issues are well articulated in the recent book Salvage Logging and Its Ecological Consequences by David Lindenmayer, Philip Burton, and Jerry Franklin (Island Press, 2008). The authors conclude, "Salvage logging and other post-disturbance practices can have profound negative impacts on ecological processes and biodiversity." 

No substantive scientific evidence supports the idea that fire-adapted forests might be improved by logging following a fire event. In fact, recent evidence concludes just the opposite by maintaining that most plants and animals in these forests are adapted to periodic fires and other natural disturbances and that they have a remarkable way of recovering because they have evolved with and even depend upon fire.

Scientific Thinking on Salvage Logging and Reforestation is changing rapidly...

Key findings from recent research:


1) In Shatford, et. al. 2007, Conifer Regeneration after Forest Fire in the Klamath-Siskiyous: How Much, How Soon?, published in the Journal of Forestry (Society of American Foresters), the authors discussed the success of conifer regeneration after forest fires in northern California with no salvage logging and only natural regeneration (re-growth of forests). Specifically they found that:
"...our findings suggest that the prognosis for achieving reasonable conifer densities is fair to excellent, even on sites with high cover of broad-leaved shrubs and hardwoods. Although conifer growth may be delayed by competition over the short term, benefits in terms of wildlife habitat and site-fertility should be considered."
"...assertions that burned areas, left unmanaged will remain unproductive for some indefinite period seems unwarranted."
"In contrast to expectations, generally, we found natural conifer regeneration abundant across a variety of settings."


2) In Donato et. al. 2006, Post-Fire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk, in the journal Science the authors determined that:
"Our data show that postfire logging by removing naturally seeded conifers and increasing surface fuel loads, can be counterproductive to goals of forest regeneration and fuels reduction. The results presented suggest that post logging may conflict with ecosystem recovery goals."

"Postfire logging subsequently reduced regeneration by 71% (767 seedlings per hectare to 224 seedlings per hectare) due to soil disturbance and physical burial by woody material during logging operations."

"Postfire logging significantly increased both fine and coarse woody fuel loads...this pulse far exceeded expectations for postfire logging generated fuel loads."

3) Swanson et al (2010): "Naturally regenerated ESFEs [early successional forest ecosystems] are likely to be better adapted to the present day climate and may be more adaptable to future climate change. The diverse genotypes in naturally regenerated ESFEs are likely to provide greater resilience to environmental stresses than nursery-grown, planted trees of the same species."

'Prompt, dense reforestation can have negative consequences for biodiversity and processes associated with early successional forest ecosystems."


Read more about reforestation and salvage logging impacts, and listen to interview with Craig Thomas on Capitol Radio, June 12, 2007

Salvage Logging Science

Also, be sure to check additional fire science research here.

Baird, B.N. 2006. Comment on ‘‘Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk’’. Technical Comment, Science Vol. 313. (42KB PDF)

Beschta, R.L., 1995. Wildfire and Salvage Logging: Recommendations for Ecologically Sound Post-Fire Salvage Logging and Other Post-Fire Treatments on Federal Lands in the West. Pacific Rivers Council. Eugene, OR. 14 pp. (361KB PDF)

Beschta, R.L. 2004. Postfire Management on Forested Public Lands of the Western United States. Conservation Biology, 18(4) 957-967. (41KB PDF)

Donato, D.C., 2006. Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk. Science Express Brevia, Science, Vol. 311. no. 5759. (339KB PDF)

Donato, D.C., 2006. Response to Comments on ‘‘Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk’’. Technical Comment, Science Vol. 313. (121KB PDF)

Donato, D.C., J.B. Fontaine, J.B. Kauffman, W.D. Robinson, and B.E. Law. 2013. Fuel mass and forest structure following stand-replacement fire and post-fire logging in a mixed-evergreen forest. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22:652-666 (556 KB PDF).

Duncan, S. 2002. Postfire logging: is it beneficial to a forest? Science Findings (47). USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station. (233KB PDF)

Dunn, C.J. and J.D. Bailey.  2015.  Modeling the direct effects of salvage logging on long-term temporal fuel dynamics in dry-mixed conifer forests.  Forest Ecology and Management 341:93-109 (3.52 MB PDF).

Foster, D.R., and D.A. Orwig. 2006. Preemptive and Salvage Harvesting of New England Forests: When Doing Nothing Is a Viable Alternative. Conservation Biology, 20(4) 959–970. (545KB PDF)

Hutto, R.L. 2006. Toward Meaningful Snag-Management Guidelines for Postfire Salvage Logging in North American Conifer Forests. Conservation Biology, 20(4) 984–993. (325KB PDF)

Ingalsbee, T. 2003. Salvaging Timber; Scuttling Forests: The Ecological Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging. Western Fire Ecology Center, American Lands Alliance. (42KB PDF)

Karr, J. R., 2004. The Effects of Postfire Salvage Logging on Aquatic Ecosystems in the American West. Bioscience 54,1029-1033. (465KB PDF)

Keyser, T.L., F.W. Smith, and W.D. Shepperd.  2009.  Short-term impacts of post-fire salvage logging on regeneration, hazardous fuel accumulation, and understory development in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, SD, USA.  International Journal of Wildland Fire 18:451-458 (198 KB PDF)

Kobziar, L.N., J.R. McBride, and S.L. Stephens.  2009.  The efficacy of fire and fuels reduction treatments in a Sierra Nevada pine plantation.  International Journal of Wildland Fire 18:791-801 (247 KB PDF)

Lindenmayer, D.B., D. Foster, J.F. Franklin, M. Hunter, R. Noss, F. Schiemegelo, and D. Perry. 2004. Salvage logging after natural disturbance. Science 303:1303.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and R.F. Noss. 2006. Salvage Logging, Ecosystem Processes, and Biodiversity Conservation. Conservation Biology, 20(4) 949–958. (298KB PDF)

Lindenmayer, D.B., and K. Ough. 2006. Salvage Logging in the Montane Ash Eucalypt Forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and Its PotentialImpacts on Biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 20(4) 1005–1015. (237KB PDF)

Lindenmayer, D.B., P. Burton, and J. Franklin. 2008. Salvage Logging and Its Ecological Consequences. Island Press.

McGinnis, T.W., J.E. Keeley, S.L. Stephens, and G.B. Roller. 2010. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests. Forest Ecol. Mgmt. 260(2010):22-35. (1.34 MB PDF)

McIver, J.D., and L. Starr. 2000. Environmental Effects of Postfire Logging: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. U.S. Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR 486. (396KB PDF)

McIver, J.D., and R. Ottmar. 2007. Fuel Mass and Stand Structure After Post-fire Logging of a Severely Burned Ponderosa Pine Forest in Northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management 238, 268–279. (857KB PDF)

Newton, M., 2006. Comment on ‘‘Post-Wildfire Logging Hinders Regeneration and Increases Fire Risk’’. Technical Comment, Science Vol. 313. (58KB PDF)

Peterson, David L. et al. 2009. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-776. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 51 p. (817 KB PDF)

Reeves, G.H., 2006. Postfire Logging in Riparian Areas. Conservation Biology, 20(4) 994–1004. (215KB PDF)

Thompson, J.R., T.A. Spies, and L.M. Ganio. 2007. Reburn severity in managed and unmanaged vegetation in a large wildfire. PNAS 104(25):10743–10748. (919 KB PDF)

Other Post-fire and Post-Disturbance Science

Benda, L., 2003. Effects of Post-wildfire Erosion on Channel Environments, Boise River, Idaho. Forest Ecology and Management 178, 105–119. (646KB PDF)

Beyers, J.L. 2004. Postfire Seeding for Erosion Control: Effectiveness and Impacts on Native Plant Communities. Conservation Biology, 18(4) 947-956. (145KB PDF)

DellaSala, D. et al. 2013. Conservation science perspective on complex early seral forests: what are they and how to manage them in the Sierra Nevada ecoregion. Comments submitted to the Forest Service for early adopter forest plan revisions.

Donato, D.C. et al. 2009. Conifer regeneration in stand-replacement portions of a large mixed-severity wildfire in the Klamath-Siskiyou mountains. Can J For Rest 39, 823-838.(1.66 MB PDF)

Franklin, J. F. and K. N. Johnson. 2012. A restoration framework for federal forests in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Forestry. 110(8):429–439.

Hanson, C.T., and M.P. North. 2006. Post-fire Epicormic Branching in Sierra Nevada Abies concolor (white fir). International Journal of Wildland Fire, 15, 31–35. (267KB PDF)

Kotliar, N.B., S.L. Haire, and C.H. Key. 2003. Lessons from the Fires of 2000: Post-Fire Heterogeneity in Ponderosa Pine Forests. U.S. Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-29. (33KB PDF)

McHugh, C.W., and T.E. Kolb. 2003. Ponderosa Pine Mortality Following Fire in Northern Arizona. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 12, 7-22. (228KB PDF)

Ritchie, M.W., E.E. Knapp, and C.N. Skinner. 2013. Snag longevity and surface fuel accumulation following post-fire logging in a ponderosa pine dominated forest. Forest Ecology and Management 287 (2013) 113–122. (864 KB PDF)

Saab, V.A., J. Dudley, and W.L. Thompson. 2004. Factors Influencing Occupancy of Nest Cavities in Recently Burned Forests. The Condor 106, 20-36. (183KB PDF)

Shatford, J.P.A., D.E. Hibbs, and K.J. Puettmann. 2007. Conifer Regeneration after Forest Fire in the Klamath-Siskiyous: How Much, How Soon? Journal of Forestry, April/May 2003, 139-146. (4MB PDF)

Swanson, M.E. et al. 2010. The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Frontiers Ecol Environ 9(2): 117–125.(1.41 MB PDF)

Swanson, M.E. et al. 2014. Biological associates of early-seral pre-forest in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecol Mgmt. In press.

Weatherspoon, C.P. and C.N. Skinner. 1995. An Assessment of Factors Associated with Damage to Tree Crowns form the 1987 Wildfires in Northern California. Forest Science, 41(3) 430-451. (2.3MB PDF)

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